Location: Part of the Indian subcontinent; Pakistan has borders with Afghanistan, China, Iran and India, with the Indian Ocean in the south
Area: 803,943 sq km
National composition: Punjabis (majority), Pathans, Sindhis, Baluchis and others
Official languages: Urdu, English
Currency: Pakistani rupee = 100 paisa
Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, the capital territory, and federally administered tribal lands
Other major cities: Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi
Highest elevation: Chogori, 8,611 m high in the Karakoram Range on the Chinese border
Chief rivers: Indus and its tributaries
Climate: Subtropical, dry; monsoons bring high precipitation to higher elevations
North and west Pakistan are mountainous. But the larger part of the country is made up of the plains drained by the River Indus and its tributaries. Ibex, gazelle and wild sheep roam the mountains, while wolf and various rodents are found on the steppes.
More than half of the people are farmers who produce cereals, cotton, flax, fruit, jute, rice, sugar cane, tea and tobacco and rear sheep, goats, cattle, donkeys and camels. Teak and sandalwood are obtained from the forests.
Pakistan has deposits of coal, chrome ore, oil and natural gas and rock salt, and manufacturing is increasing.