International Tiger Day is celebrated every year on July 29th as a way to raise awareness about this magnificent but endangered big cat. The day was founded in 2010, when the 13 tiger range countries came together to create Tx2 – the global goal to double the number of wild tigers by the year 2022.
The tiger is the largest of the world’s big cats and this magnificent creature, with its distinctive orange and black stripes and beautifully marked face, has a day that is dedicated to it.
International Tiger Day: Introduction
International Tiger Day has been created so that people around the world can raise awareness for tiger conservation. The aim of the day is to help promote a worldwide system whereby we are dedicated to protecting tigers and their natural habitats.
We can also use this day to support tiger conservation issues and to raise awareness. After all, when more people are aware of something, they are going to be more inclined to help, and that is why this day is so important.
There are a number of different issues that tigers all around the world face. There are a number of treats that are driving tigers close to extinction, and we can do our bit to make sure that we do not lose these incredible creatures. Some of the threats that tigers face include poaching, conflict with humans, and habitat loss.
Poaching and the illegal trade industry is a very worrying one. This is the biggest threat that wild tigers face. Demand for tiger bone, skin, and other body parts is leading to poaching and trafficking. This is having a monumental impact on the sub-populations of tigers, resulting in localized extinctions. We often see tiger skins being used in home decor.
Moreover, bones are used for medicines and tonics. This has seen illegal criminal syndicates get involved in the tiger trade in order to make huge profits. It really is a worrying industry. In fact, it is thought to be worth 10 billion dollars per annum in the United States alone. This is why we need to support charities and work hard to put an end to poaching and the illegal trade of tiger parts.
While this represents the biggest threats to tigers, there are a number of other threats as well. This includes habitat loss. Throughout the world, tiger habitats have reduced because of access routes, human settlements, timber logging, plantations, and agriculture.
In fact, only around seven percent of the historical range of a tiger is still intact today. That is an incredibly small and worrying amount. This can increase the number of conflicts between tigers, as they roman about and try to locate new habitats. Not only this, but genetic diversity can reduce because it can cause there to be inbreeding in small populations.
International Tiger Day: History
This was first celebrated in 2010 and was founded at an international summit that had been called in response to the shocking news that 97% of all wild tigers had disappeared in the last century, with only around 3,000 left alive.
Tigers are on the brink of extinction and International World Tiger Day aims to bring attention to this fact and try to halt their decline. Many factors have caused their numbers to fall, including habitat loss, climate change, hunting and poaching and Tiger Day aims to protect and expand their habitats and raise awareness of the need for conservation.
Many international organizations are involved in the day, including the WWF, the IFAW and the Smithsonian Institute.
Reasons behind the declining population of Tigers
- Poaching and illegal trade: For traditional Chinese medicines, tigers face the problem of poaching as there is a demand for every part of the body of the tiger. In illegal wildlife trades, they keep high prices.
- Habitat loss: Nowadays and with the increasing population forest are becoming less in numbers. Clearing of forests for several reasons like agriculture, industries, etc. made a loss of around 93% of the natural habitats of tigers.
- Climate Change: With the rise of sea level due to climate change lead to wiping out of Sundarbans one of the habitats of Royal Bengal Tigers.
- Several diseases are also the key factor. Several animals die and there is no way to ascertain the cause of their death. Certain diseases spread epidemic like Feline Panleucopania, tuberculosis, etc.
- The study of Wildlife Institute of India (WII) in the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve (RTR) says that the tiger population in the park shown a loss of genetic diversity over the years.
- Degradation of Habitats: Big cats want secure and disturbance-free habitat to survive but due to several developmental activities in the landscape of the protected areas (PAs) pose a big threat to tigers.
- Man-animal conflict also affects the population of big cats.
- Lack of protection infrastructure.
- Increasing tourism day by day is also one of the factors for the decline in tiger numbers.
All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018:
According to the report released by Prime Minister Narendra Modi namely ‘All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018’ India has achieved its 2022 target of tiger population in the country. India now has 2,967 tigers. The growth in the 4th cycle of the Tiger Census has been 33 percent. 4 years before the deadline, India has achieved a target. Nine years ago in St. Petersburg, it was decided to double the population of the tiger by 2022.
Let us tell you that according to the census, Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number of tigers that is 526 which is closely followed by Karnataka at 524 and Uttarakhand with 442 tigers at number 3 position.
There is a decline in the population of tiger in Chhattisgarh and Mizoram while tiger numbers in Odisha remained constant.
Note: In 2014, there were 692 protected areas, which increased to more than 860 in 2019. The 33% rise in tiger numbers is the highest ever recorded between cycles which stood at 21% between 2006 to 2010 and 30% between 2010 and 2014.
Tigers are a part of our planets’ natural heritage; they also have great cultural and historical significance. No doubt they are also crucial for the ecosystems in which they live. We can’t ignore that tigers not only protect the forest by maintaining ecological integrity but also they bring the highest levels of protection and investment to an area. Therefore, we call them as “umbrella species” that is their conservation also conserve many other species in the same area.
So, protect and conserve tigers!
How to observe International Tiger Day:
Wild tiger populations have declined by around 95% since the beginning of the 20th century. There’s now estimated to be around 3,900 wild tigers.
Each tiger has a unique set of stripes – like a fingerprint – and this helps us identify individuals in the wild. Since the beginning of the 20th century, wild tiger populations have declined by around 95%. Sadly, there are more tigers in captivity in the US than are left in the wild. The tiger is officially classed as endangered by the IUCN.
Animal adoptions give a huge boost to the work that the WWF is doing. They not only help fund projects to work with local communities to monitor tiger movements, reduce poaching and help people to realize benefits from living in close proximity to wild tigers – but they also support our other vital work around the world.
So what are you waiting for head over to the WWF adopt a tiger page to help this fantastic organization and their efforts to protect this amazing animal.
Of course, adopting a tiger is not the only way that you can help on this date. There are a number of other things that you can do. You could raise funds for a tiger charity, for example. Moreover, raising awareness is critically important. You can take to social media to make sure that your friends, followers, and family members are aware of the different threats that tigers face.
A lot of people are not aware of these threats, and so spreading the knowledge can help to make sure that we all do our bit to ensure that the tiger’s future is a fruitful one. There will be a lot of videos, infographics, and interesting pieces of content going around that you can share with others.
Last year, Bhutan conducted its first ever national tiger survey and released the result (103 wild tigers) on Global Tiger Day 2015. This Global Tiger Day has seen some more exciting news from the Himalayan country: a wild tiger has been photographed in Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS) – an area where wild tigers haven’t been found in for nearly two decades! Bhutan showed immense support for the #ThumbsUpForTigers campaign, with people across the country eager to show their support for Tx2 goal to double wild tiger numbers.
This Global Tiger Day, results from a tiger monitoring study conducted in Bardia National Park in the Terai Arc Landscape of Nepal were released – showing an increase in tiger numbers. To mark the day, in Kathmandu, the government together with WWF Nepal, National Trust for Nature Conservation and Zoological Society of London organized a panel discussion focusing on the scientific, societal and economic rationale behind protecting tigers, including the need to address wildlife crimes. The panel comprised representatives from the local community, Nepal Army, Nepal Police, tourism and infrastructure development sectors, and the government.
Following the extinction of tigers from Java and Bali in the past century, Indonesia’s wild tigers are now found solely on the island of Sumatra. With less than 400 tigers left in Sumatra and an IUCN classification of critically endangered, urgent action is needed to protect this magnificent species. This Global Tiger Day saw events in both the capital city, Jakarta, and across the island of Sumatra with people around Indonesia showing passionate support for tiger conservation and the Tx2 goal.
An exhibition of 371 papier mâché tigers was held in one of the biggest malls in the capital of Jakarta, representing the number of wild tigers left in Indonesia. Senayan City Mall donated six camera traps in support of conservation work to protect the Sumatran tiger.
In Central Sumatra, an outdoor event was held to educate the public about the importance of law enforcement work against wildlife crime, and garner support for the cause. The event was filled with activities such as a drawing competition, an introduction to the use of camera traps, and even a photo selfie contest with pictures taken from camera traps during the event.
The celebration in Aceh was marked by a gathering of youths at the Baiturahman Grand Mosque monument in Banda Aceh. With their faces painted with tiger stripes, the youth called for the protection of the Sumatran tiger. Some also donned tiger masks, read poetry and performed a flashmob and invited members of the public to give their #ThumbsUpForTigers.
Malaysia’s tigers are critically endangered, with as few as 250 remaining. This Global Tiger Day, WWF-Malaysia and Maybank hosted an exhibition to raise awareness about the plight of Malaysia’s national animal – and the efforts undertaken to strengthen the protection of wild tiger populations in the Belum-Temengor Forest Complex. The public were invited to pledge their support with their finger prints and the final artwork was unveiled on Global Tiger Day at the Maybank Head Quarters in Kuala Lumpur.
India: International Tiger Day
India is home to over half of the world’s wild tigers – an estimated 2,226. Global Tiger Day was observed across all WWF tiger landscapes with much fervor and enthusiasm. The teams organized week-long celebrations to build awareness on tiger conservation and develop a stronger bond between wildlife and people. Thousands of local communities and young minds were encouraged to take up conservation issues and spare a thought for the ‘tiger’.
A total of almost 4,000 individuals, comprising people from all age groups, were reached out to during this year’s celebrations across Satpuda Maikal, Sundarbans, Terai Arc, Western Ghats Nilgiris and Western India Tiger Landscapes. The Thumbs Up For Tigers campaign was organised across all locations where showed their support and commitment for doubling the number of wild tigers.
No evidence of tigers have been recorded in Cambodia since 2007 so tigers are considered functionally extinct in this country. However, WWF-Cambodia is supporting the Government of Cambodia’s plans to reintroduce tigers. To commemorate Global Tiger Day, an event was held at the AEON Mall. The event featured an exhibition about tigers, and a ranger sharing about the important work that they do. WWF-Cambodia also organised a video competition to raise awareness about the importance of forest and wildlife conservation.
There is evidence of tigers returning and breeding in Northeast China. The country is currently conducting tiger surveys to gain an estimate of numbers. This International Tiger Day, WWF-China joined forces with WWF-Russia to host a two-day festival in China. The festival played host to government officials, tiger experts and corporate delegations and involved presentations by officials, representatives from the nature reserves, and WWF offices. Small-group discussions between corporations and nature reserves about tiger conservation were held, and a field trip for corporate delegations was arranged.
DotAsia, a non-profit organisation and a Tx2 ambassador, was part of the four-day Asia Pacific Regional Governance Forum (APrIGF) in Taipei. DotAsia, alongside TRAFFIC East Asia and WWF, mobilised support for the Tx2 goal – to double the number of wild tigers in the world. The role of the internet as a platform for illegal wildlife trade was highlighted as a threat to tiger conservation. However, the importance of technology was also underscored as a helpful medium for tiger conservation, through the use of SMART technology and the assistance it provides to rangers in the field.
कब हुई टाइगर-डे की शुरुआत, विश्व में कितनी प्रजातियां हैं मौजूद
बाघों की घटती संख्या और इसके संरक्षण के प्रति जागरूकता बढ़ाने के लिए हर साल 29 जुलाई को अंतरराष्ट्रीय बाघ दिवस (International Tiger Day) मनाया जाता है। नेशनल टाइगर कंजर्वेशन अथॉरिटी के मुताबिक 2014 में आखिरी बार हुई गणना के अनुसार भारत में 2226 बाघ हैं। जो कि 2010 की गणना की तुलना में काफी ज्यादा हैं। 2010 में बाघों की संख्या 1706 थी। नए आंकड़ों के मुताबिक, देश में बाघों की संख्या 2967 पहुंच गई हैं। दिल्ली में प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी ने अंतरराष्ट्रीय बाघ दिवस पर ऑल इंडिया टाइगर एस्टीमेशन 2018 जारी किया। इसके मुताबिक 2014 के मुकाबले बाघों की संख्या में 741 बढ़ोत्तरी हुई है।
कब हुई मनाने की शुरुआत: International Tiger Day
बाघ संरक्षण के काम को प्रोत्साहित करने, उनकी घटती संख्या के प्रति लोगों को जागरूक करने के लिए 2010 में रूस के सेंट पीटर्सबर्ग में आयोजित एक शिखर सम्मेलन में अंतरराष्ट्रीय बाघ दिवस मनाने की घोषणा हुई थी। इस सम्मेलन में मौजूद कई देशों की सरकारों ने 2020 तक बाघों की आबादी को दोगुना करने का लक्ष्य तय किया था।
वर्ल्ड वाइल्ड लाइफ फंड (WWF) के मुताबिक दुनिया में लगभग 3,900 बाघ ही बचे हैं। 20वीं सदी की शुरुआत के बाद से वैश्विक स्तर पर 95 फीसद से अधिक बाघ की आबादी कम हो गई है। 1915 में बाघों की संख्या एक लाख से ज्यादा थी।
घटती आबादी की वजह:
इसके कई कारण हैं। वन क्षेत्र घटा है। इसे बढ़ाना और संरक्षित रखना सबसे बड़ी चुनौती है। चमड़े, हड्डियों एवं शरीर के अन्य भागों के लिए अवैध शिकार, जलवायु परिवर्तन जैसी भी चुनौतियां शामिल हैं।
- बाघों की जिंदा प्रजातियां: साइबेरियन टाइगर, बंगाल टाइगर, इंडोचाइनीज टाइगर, मलायन टाइगर, सुमात्रन टाइगर
- विलुप्त हो चुकीं प्रजातियां: बाली टाइगर, कैस्पियन टाइगर, जावन टाइगर
प्रोजेक्ट टाइगर (Project Tiger: International Tiger Day)
1973 में तत्कालीन पीएम इंदिरा गांधी ने टाइगर प्रोजेक्ट की शुरुआत की थी। इस प्रोजेक्ट का उद्देश्य भारत में उपलब्ध बाघों की संख्या के वैज्ञानिक, आर्थिक, सांस्कृतिक और पारिस्थिक मूल्यों का संरक्षण सुनिश्चित करना है। इसके अंतर्गत अब तक 50 टाइगर रिजर्व बनाए जा चुके हैं।
दुनिया के लिए आदर्श बनता भारत
भारत में बाघों की बढ़ती संख्या इस बात का संकेत है कि पिछले कुछ सालों में भारत ने अन्य देशों की तुलना में बाघ संरक्षण पर काफी मेहनत की है।
उत्तराखंड भारत के बाघों की राजधानी के रूप में उभर रहा है। उत्तराखंड के हर जिले में बाघों की उपस्थिति पायी गयी है। वन विभाग के साथ-साथ राज्य सरकार इन अध्ययनों से काफी उत्साहित है और केन्द्र सरकार को इस संबंध में रिपोर्ट भेजेगी। उत्तराखंड में 1995 से 2019 के बीच किये गये विभिन्न शोधों व अध्ययनों से इस निष्कर्ष पर पहुंचा गया है। इस दौरान विभिन्न डब्ल्यूआईआई के रिपोर्टों के अलावा विभिन्न समय में लगाये गये कैमरा ट्रेपों व मीडिया रिपोर्टों को आधार बनाया गया है।
वन कर्मचारियों और ग्रामीणों द्वारा बाघों के प्रत्यक्ष व अप्रत्यक्ष साक्ष्य जैसे पगमार्क, चिन्ह इत्यादि को भी आधार बनाया गया है। उन्होंने कहा कि भौगालिक रूप से देखा जाय तो उत्तराखंड उच्च हिमालय, मध्य हिमालय के अलावा तराई के मैदानी हिस्सों में बंटा हुआ है। खास बात यह है कि इन तीनों हिस्सों में बाघों की उपस्थिति के संकेत मिले हैं।
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