Gradenigo, an Italian otolaryngologist from the University of Naples, described this syndrome in 1904. Painful anaesthesia in the first division of the fifth cranial nerve supplying the forehead with sixth cranial nerve palsy occurs in this syndrome. It happens as a result of a lesion at the apex of petrous temporal bone outside the dura mater. It may be due to infection, trauma or infiltration of the nasopharyngeal cancer. Additionally, the patient may have deep retro-orbital pain and swelling of the same side of face and scalp. The syndrome may be associated with vertigo and hearing loss. An MRI is better than CT scan for early diagnosis.
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