Arbutus

ArbutusArbutus — Arbutus is a genus of at least 14 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, native to warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean, western Europe, and North America.

North American members of the genus are called Madrones, from the Spanish name madroño. The European species are called Strawberry Trees from the superficial resemblance of the fruit to a strawberry; some species are sometimes referred to simply as the “Arbutus”. Curiously, the name “Madrone” is used south of the Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon/northern California and the name “Madrona” is used north of the Siskiyou Mountains according to the “Sunset Western Garden Book”. North of the Canadian border, the name “Arbutus” is commonly used. All refer to the same tree, Arbutus menziesii, native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern California regions.

It is Canada’s only broadleaved evergreen tree, with a mature height of 5-25 meters. It has red or brownish bark that peels off each year as the tree grows, while the trunk of the tree is smooth to the touch. The leaves are spirally arranged, oval to broad lanceolate, with a serrated or entire margin. The flowers are bell-shaped, 5–10 mm long, white, yellow or pink, and produced in racemes or corymbs. The fruit is a rough-textured red or orange-red berry 1–2 cm in diameter containing yellow-flesh fruit with numerous, very small seeds; the fruit is edible but has minimal flavour and is not widely eaten. The fruit will dry out and turn brown with prickles like burs that latch onto larger animals for migration to new areas.

A recent study which analyzed ribosomal DNA from Arbutus and related genera suggests that the Mediterranean Basin species of Arbutus are not very closely related to the North American species, and that the split between the two groups of species occurred at the Paleogene/Neogene boundary.

Arbutus is a great fuelwood tree since it burns hot and long. Many North West states in the United States use the wood primarily as a heat source, as the wood holds no value in the production of homes since it doesn’t grow in straight timbers.

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