|Name:||Guru Tegh Bahadur – (Baba) Tyag Mal|
|Birthday:||21 April 1621
Amritsar, Punjab, Mughal Empire (present-day India)
|Parents:||Guru Hargobind and Mata Nanaki|
|Children:||Guru Gobind Singh|
|24 November 1675 (aged 54)
Delhi, Mughal Empire (present-day India)
Guru Tegh Bahadur was the ninth of the ten Gurus of the religion of Sikhism. The youngest of the five sons of the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Hargobind, he was trained in the martial arts of swordsmanship and horse riding from a young age. He also received religious training from Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas.
He grew up to be a brave young man and accompanied his father and other Sikhs in their battles and displayed bravery in the wars against the Mughal forces. However, after one particularly bloody battle in 1634 at Kartarpur, he turned to the path of renunciation and meditation. Meanwhile his father selected Har Rai, his grandson as his natural successor, who became the seventh guru of the Sikhs. Har Rai himself was succeeded by his son Har Krishan.
In March 1664 Guru Har Krishan contracted smallpox and just before his death he informed the followers that his successor would be found in Bakala. Following some mystical events Tegh Bahadur was recognized as the successor and appointed the Sikh guru. As the guru he toured various parts of India and composed several hymns. He believed in religious freedom for all, and this brought him in conflict with Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb who ordered that the guru be brutally executed.
Guru Tegh Bahadur: Childhood & Early Life
Guru Tegh Bahadur was born as Tyag Mal on 1 April 1621 in Amritsar, India, to the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Hargobind and Mata Nanaki. He had one elder sister and four brothers.
From a young age he was trained in the martial-arts of archery and horsemanship. He also received religious training from Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas. He grew up to be a brave young man and displayed considerable courage in the battles against the Mughals in which the Sikhs were often engaged in. His father gave him the title of “Tegh Bahadur”, meaning “Mighty of Sword”, in recognition of his bravery.
In 1634, the Sikhs fought a particularly brutal and bloody battle at Kartarpur. Following this battle, a major change came over the young man Tegh Bahadur and he turned to the path of renunciation and meditation. He eventually moved to the isolated village of Bakala and spent several years in contemplation and prayer.
- Meanwhile Guru Hargobind was looking for a successor. He wanted to select a courageous man with qualities of leadership to lead the Sikhs after him. Since Tegh Bahadur had now chosen a path of renunciation, he was not considered as a suitable successor. So Guru Hargobind chose Guru Har Rai, his grandson as his natural successor.
- Guru Har Rai, however, lived a very short life and died at the age of 31. Just before his death, he passed the Guru Gaddi to his younger son, the five year old Guru Har Krishan. The young child Har Krishan became the guru in 1661. He too did not live long. He became ill with smallpox during an epidemic and died at the age of eight in 1664.
- When it became apparent that Guru Har Krishan would not survive his illness, the followers asked him to name his successor. Too ill to speak properly, the child-guru could only say “Baba Bakala” before dying. The followers took this to mean that the next guru would be found in Bakala.
- Since the last words of Guru Har Krishan were ambiguous, several people emerged to claim the Guru Gaddi, leaving the Sikhs puzzled and confused. A legend in the Sikh tradition explains how Guru Tegh Bahadur was found and chosen as the ninth guru.
- A wealthy trader Baba Makhan Shah Labana had once promised to himself in the face of danger that he would gift 500 gold coins to the Sikh guru if he survived. He travelled to Bakala in search of the guru and offered two gold coins to each claimant. All the claimants accepted his offering and bid him farewell.
- Then he encountered Tegh Bahadur and gave him the offering of two gold coins. Tegh Bahadur blessed him, smiled and said “I thought that you had pledged five hundred coins”. The trader was overjoyed that he had discovered the true guru and quickly informed everyone of the discovery.
- After being formally seated on the Guru Gaddi, Guru Tegh Bahadur continued living an austere life. He embarked on several journeys, spreading the teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Sikh Guru. He travelled to many places including Kurukshetra, Agra, Ittawa, Patna, Dhaka and Assam. Along with preaching the ideals of Sikhism, he also started community water wells and langars (community kitchen charity for the poor). He wrote extensively and his spiritual works include 116 shabads and 15 ragas.
- During this time Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, a fanatical Muslim, was persecuting non-Muslims and forcing them to convert to Islam. The citizens of the country were reeling under the atrocities committed by the tyrannical ruler. At that time, the Hindu Brahmin Pandits of Kashmir were among the most highly learned and orthodox of the Hindu leadership and Aurangzeb believed that if he forced them to convert, the rest of the country would easily follow.
- The viceroy of Kashmir Iftikhar Khan began inflicting unspeakable violence on the pandits in order to force them to convert. Unable to bear the torture at the hands of Mughals, a delegation of Kashmiri Pandits sought help from Guru Tegh Bahadur.
- When the pandits explained their situation to the guru, he grew thoughtful as to what course of action to follow. His nine year old son Gobind Rai asked his father the matter. The guru explained that the atrocities of the Mughals could be stopped only by the sacrifice of a holy person.
- On hearing the reply of his father, the young Gobind suggested that Guru Tegh Bahadur offer himself for this supreme sacrifice. The guru then declared Gobind Rai as his successor and accompanied the pandits on their journey to meet the Mughal emperor. His three devoted disciples, Dyal Dass, Sati Dass and Mati dass insisted on going along with him.
Guru Tegh Bahadur: Torture & Martyrdom
- When Aurangzeb came to hear of the news, he ordered the immediate arrest of the guru and his followers who were then brought to Delhi. The Mughal emperor ordered Guru Tegh Bahadur to convert to Islam or face torture. The guru calmly refused to convert.
- Enraged, Aurangzeb ordered that the guru and his followers be subjected to vicious brutality. He believed that the men would not be able to bear the torture and would convert. However, the Sikhs bravely faced all the brutalities inflicted upon them without giving up their faith.
- His followers Dyal Dass, Sati Dass and Mati Dass were tortured and killed in the most savage ways before his very eyes. Yet the guru maintained his serenity and witnessed all the brutalities with the name of God on his lips.
- Finally Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed on 24 November 1675 – he was publicly beheaded. His followers were able to retrieve the guru’s severed head and body and perform a proper funeral. Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib and Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib in Delhi mark the places of execution and cremation of the Guru’s body.
Guru Tegh Bahadur is revered for the supreme sacrifice he gave to protect the religious rights of the Hindus.
He is known as Hind-di-Chaadar (shield of India) for resisting the forced conversions of Hindus in Kashmir to Islam. By giving up his life for the rights of the Hindus, he became the first person in history to sacrifice his life to save the freedom of another religion.
Personal Life & Legacy:
Tegh Bahadur was married on 3 February 1633, to Mata Gujri.
He was succeeded by his son Gobind Rai who assumed the Guru Gaddi as Guru Gobind Singh upon Guru Tegh Bahadur’s death.
गुरु तेग बहादुर जी शहीदी दिवस 2020: हिंद दी चादर कहलाने वाले सिखों के नौवें गुरु
गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज में PM मोदी: गुरु तेग बहादुर को दी श्रद्धांजलि, जिन्हें औरंगजेब ने मरवा दिया था
गुरु तेग बहादुर ने धर्म के लिए अपना सर्वस्व बलिदान कर दिया था। औरंगजेब के आदेश पर उनकी हत्या की गई थी। गुरु तेग बहादुर ने धर्म से जुड़े मुद्दों पर विमर्श के लिए हमेशा वेदों और उपनिषदों का हवाला देते थे।
प्रधानमंत्री नरेन्द्र मोदी ने आज रविवार (20 दिसंबर 2020) की सुबह राजधानी दिल्ली स्थित गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज साहिब का दौरा किया। इसके बाद उन्होंने गुरु तेग बहादुर को उनके सर्वोच्च बलिदानों के लिए श्रद्धांजलि अर्पित की। मीडिया रिपोर्ट्स के मुताबिक़ प्रधानमंत्री मोदी का यह दौरा पहले से फिक्स नहीं था।
गौरतलब है कि प्रधानमंत्री मोदी सुबह के वक्त ही गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज साहिब आए थे। यहाँ उन्होंने गुरु तेग बहादुर के बलिदानों को याद किया। दिल्ली की सीमाओं पर लगातार 25वें दिन जारी ‘किसान’ आंदोलन के बीच प्रधानमंत्री नरेन्द्र मोदी का गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज दौरा बेहद अहम माना जा रहा है।
उल्लेखनीय है कि ‘किसान’ आंदोलन में पंजाब और हरियाणा के किसानों की अहम भूमिका है। दौरे की कोई सूचना नहीं होने के चलते प्रधानमंत्री मोदी के पहुँचने पर न तो कोई पुलिस व्यवस्था थी और न ही रास्तों पर किसी तरह के अवरोधक लगाए गए थे।
This morning, I prayed at the historic Gurudwara Rakab Ganj Sahib, where the pious body of Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji was cremated. I felt extremely blessed. I, like millions around the world, am deeply inspired by the kindnesses of Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Ji. pic.twitter.com/ECveWV9JjR
— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) December 20, 2020
प्रधानमंत्री नरेन्द्र मोदी ने ट्वीट करते हुए इस बात की जानकारी दी। प्रधानमंत्री मोदी ने अपने ट्वीट में लिखा, “आज सुबह मैंने ऐतिहासिक गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज साहिब में प्रार्थना की। जहाँ गुरु तेग बहादुर जी के पार्थिव शरीर का अंतिम संस्कार किया गया था। मैं बेहद धन्य महसूस कर रहा हूँ, दुनिया के लाखों लोगों की तरह श्री गुरु तेग बहादुर के आशीर्वाद से प्रेरित महसूस कर रहा हूँ।”
Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s life epitomised courage and compassion.
On his Shaheedi Diwas, I bow to the great Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and recall his vision for a just and inclusive society.
— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) December 19, 2020
इसके पहले भी प्रधानमंत्री नरेन्द्र मोदी ने गुरु तेग बहादुर के ‘शहीद दिवस‘ के मौके पर ट्वीट करते हुए उन्हें श्रद्धांजलि दी थी। ट्वीट में उनका कहना था कि श्री गुरु तेग बहादुर का जीवन साहस और करुणा का प्रतीक है, महान श्री गुरु तेग बहादुर के शहीद दिवस पर मैं उन्हें नमन करता हूँ और एक समावेशी समाज के लिए उनके द्वारा दिए गए दृष्टिकोण को याद करता हूँ।”
सिखों के नौवें गुरु गुरु तेग बहादुर ने धर्म के लिए अपना सर्वस्व बलिदान कर दिया था। उनका जन्म 1621 में हुआ था और 1675 में वह बलिदान (औरंगजेब के आदेश पर उनकी हत्या की गई थी) हुए थे। 17वीं शताब्दी के दौरान उन्होंने सिख धर्म की रक्षा के अपना सब कुछ न्यौछावर कर दिया था। वह सिखों के दसवें गुरु ‘गुरु गोविंद सिंह‘ के पिता भी थे। गुरु तेग बहादुर ने धर्म से जुड़े मुद्दों पर विमर्श के लिए हमेशा वेदों और उपनिषदों का हवाला देते थे। गुरु तेग बहादुर इन समस्त शास्त्र-पुराणों में पारंगत थे और साथ ही मानवता को परम धर्म मानते थे।
उन्होंने मुग़ल साम्राज्य के अत्याचारों के विरुद्ध लंबी लड़ाई लड़ी और धर्म की रक्षा के लिए प्राणों का बलिदान कर दिया इसलिए उन्हें ‘हिन्द दी चादर‘ भी कहा जाता है। राजधानी दिल्ली स्थित गुरुद्वारा शीश गंज साहिब और गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज साहिब गुरु तेग बहादुर के सर्वोच्च बलिदान के प्रतीक स्थल हैं। गुरु तेग बहादुर की याद में उनके शहीद स्थल पर जो गुरुद्वारा बनाया गया है, उसे गुरुद्वारा शीश गंज साहिब नाम से जाना जाता है। इसके अलावा गुरुद्वारा रकाब गंज साहिब में गुरु तेग बहादुर का अंतिम संस्कार किया गया था।