Coeur de Lion, the Lion Heart, was the nickname of King Richard I of England (1157-99). From his youth he was engaged in almost constant war against his father, his brothers, or the king of France. Richard became king on his father’s death in 1189. He went off on the Third Crusade, and, captured on his way home, was imprisoned and ransomed. He spent the rest of his reign fighting Philip Augustus of France, and was killed while besieging the castle of Chaluz.