These interactions depend on the nature of the light and the nature of the material. For instance, light falling on a leaf encounters many pigment molecules, predominantly chlorophyll. These molecules absorb light from the red and blue ends of the visible spectrum. The remaining light is scattered back because molecules in a leaf are tightly packed and so, we see a green leaf. Glass has properties of both a solid (its molecules don’t move very much) and a liquid (the molecules are not arranged in any ordered way). Molecules in glass are not packed into a tight lattice and, unless tinted, it doesn’t contain molecules that capture light with a particular energy. So, when light encounters glass, most of it passes straight through. Hence it is transparent.
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Here is a nice poem by Prasoon Joshi. The poem is a metaphor for a …