This is a new and promising technology in the field of wireless and mobile communications in which capacity and performance are usually limited by two major impairments — multipath and co-channel interference. Multipath is a condition that arises when a transmitted signal undergoes reflection from various obstacles in the environment. This gives rise to multiple signals arriving from different directions at the receiver. The result is bad signal quality at the receiver due to phase mismatch. Co-channel interference is interference between two signals that operate at the same frequency. A smart antenna enables a higher capacity in wireless networks by effectively reducing multipath and co-channel interference. This is achieved by focusing the radiation only in the desired direction and adjusting itself to changing traffic conditions or signal environments. Smart antennas employ a set of radiating elements arranged in the form of an array.
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