Lemon — The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants. It is the common name for the reproductive tissue surrounding the seed of the angiosperm lemon tree. The lemon is used for culinary and non culinary uses throughout the world.The fruit is used primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind (zest) are also used, primarily in cooking and baking. Lemon juice is about 5% citric acid, which gives lemons a tart taste, and a pH of 2 to 3. This makes lemon juice an inexpensive, readily available acid for use in educational science experiments.
Lemons are used to make lemonade, and as a garnish for drinks. Iced tea, soft drinks and water are often served with a wedge or slice of lemon in the glass or on the rim.
The average lemon contains approximately 3 tablespoons of juice. Allowing lemons to come to room temperature before squeezing (or heating briefly in a microwave) makes the juice easier to extract. Lemons left unrefrigerated for long periods of time are susceptible to mold.
Fish are marinated in lemon juice to neutralize the odor. The acid neutralizes the amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts.
Lemon juice, alone or in combination with other ingredients, is used to marinate meat before cooking: the acid provided by the juice partially hydrolyzes the tough collagen fibers in the meat (tenderizing the meat), though the juice does not have any antibiotic effects.
Lemons, alone or with oranges, are used to make marmalade. The grated rind of the lemon, called lemon zest, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings, rice and other dishes. Spicy pickled lemons are a Moroccan Jewish delicacy. A liqueur called limoncello is made from lemons.